Basic Survival and Communications Skills in the Aftermath

As a ham radio operator, I highly recommend this book!
Check out this book in the Amazon store. If you’re any sort of Prepper, whether you’re new at it or an old hand, you might want to read this and keep a copy of it on your kindle or eReader.  This is only available right now in the Kindle Store and in digital format.  The author tells me he is planning to come out in other reader formats later (after his contract with Kindle expires).
The book covers radio systems and communications, and discusses various “End of the World” scenarios.  Even the author doesn’t believe most of them will occur (Alien invasion was one he mentions) but certainly it gets you thinking about what might be!

Spread of Ebola

The Spread: Here’s Where People Are Being Tested for Ebola (with Results)

The Daily Sheeple
www.TheDailySheeple.com
October 3rd, 2014Ebola-Hospital-Preparatio-494963

Over 114 people have now been or are currently being tested for Ebola in the U.S. With all of the myriad rumors and potential cases of Ebola out there, it’s important to remember that not every single person tested is going to be positive. This article was started in an attempt to list new potential cases, and our staff will update it with results as soon as they come in.

POSITIVE:

Nebraska:

Ashoka Mukpo, the cameraman who contacted Ebola in Liberia while on shoot for NBC News last week, is currently headed for treatment at Nebraska Medical Center’s specialized isolation unit. (source)

Spain:

A Spanish nurse who treated a priest in Madrid who died of Ebola is suspected to be the first case of the disease contracted outside West Africa, media in Spain reported on Monday, citing sources within the country’s health authorities.

Spanish newspaper El Pais and radio Cadena Ser were among those who said the nurse had tested positive for Ebola in initial tests and officials were awaiting final results. (source)

PENDING CASES

Florida:

Local10.com is reporting that a teenager from West Africa was taken to Jackson Memorial Hospital on Sunday after exhibiting signs of Ebola, but the city of Miami Beach said preliminary results are negative. The test specimen is being sent to the CDC for a confirmation test.

Delaware:

Fox News is reporting that a patient with Ebola-like symptoms is being treated at a hospital in Delaware.

Missouri:

KCTV 5 News is reporting that officials at the Kansas City Health Department are currently monitoring a patient for “a contagious virus,” but it is “extremely unlikely that this person has Ebola because of their travel history and lack of symptoms. It is unknown at this time what the patient is suffering from or if anyone else is sick.”  (source)

Connecticut:

Two Yale University graduate students who have been over in Liberia working to develop an Ebola tracking system for the government will be voluntarily isolating themselves when they return to the U.S. this weekend. (source)

Massachusetts

A patient with a history of travel from West Africa is currently being evaluated under isolation at UMass Memorial Medical Center on Saturday night. Although hospital officials say it is likely not Ebola, they are isolating until tests can confirm this. (source)

Texas

The Dallas Fire-Rescue ambulance crew who transported the man infected with Ebola to the hospital have tested negative for the Ebola virus, according to the City of Dallas.

The City of Dallas said Tuesday that the crew took all safety precautions and was isolated and tested following the discovery.

The three members of the ambulance crew are restricted to their homes while their conditions are observed and while the virus’ incubation period passes. (source)

Utah

Health officials are investigating a possible case of Ebola at Primary Children’s Hospital in Utah, it has been confirmed.

The patient, who has not been identified, had recently traveled to a country in Africa where transmission of the Ebola virus has not yet been reported, chief of pediatric infectious diseases Dr Andrew Pavia told a press conference.

He said the patient was admitted on Wednesday and insists it is unlikely they have the deadly virus.

Tests taken today have been sent to the CDC’s headquarters for evaluation as part of the hospital’s test. (source)

Iowa

News has been circulating via a comment on YouTube from a supposed Iowa hospital worker that a child under observation at a nearby hospital had been tested for Ebola, results forthcoming. The worker was reportedly told along with staff to expect a positive result and react accordingly.

No word on the child, but a story was published on KCCI 8 News out of Des Moines that went out yesterday began with this:

People continue to email and call KCCI on Thursday saying they’ve head of Ebola patients in a Des Moines hospital.

The rumors are false, health officials said.

“IDPH confirms there are no cases of #Ebola in Iowa. Social media reports of Ebola in Iowa are untrue,” wrote Iowa Department of Public Health on Twitter. (source)

Interesting because the YouTube comment did not mention confirmed Ebola patients. It only mentioned that a child suspected of possibly having Ebola had been tested for it…

Virginia

Two patients in Virginia were tested for Ebola after displaying possible symptoms, however state health officials believe they do not have the virus.

The two Virginians met the travel criteria identified by the Centers for Disease Control, NBC12 has learned.

According to the Virginia Department of Health, one patient is from northwest Virginia. The other patient tested is from eastern Virginia. The tests as of late Friday have not indicated the Ebola virus in either patients. The Department of Health said Friday there are no confirmed cases of the deadly virus in the Commonwealth.

Both patients were isolated from the general population, but were not ordered to be quarantined. The patients had traveled to an area impacted by the Ebola virus and displayed symptoms which are similar to those infected, according to health officials. The patients were isolated and tested. Preliminary results indicated they do not have Ebola. (source)

Florida

A man in Sarasota is in the hospital this morning, getting treatment for Ebola-like symptoms.

Sarasota Memorial Hospital says the patient recently traveled here from West Africa and showed up to the emergency room in Sarasota. The patient was kept in isolation and evaluated by emergency medicine and infectious disease specialists. Hospital officials say the it is “highly unlikely” that the man has the Ebola virus.

They say he did not actually visit any high-risk Ebola countries, and he didn’t meet the CDC criteria for Ebola testing. The hospital reported the case to the Florida Department of Health, and it’s not clear if any further testing will be done. (source)

NEGATIVE CASES

 Canada:

A patient at a Toronto hospital is being tested for Ebola as well as other possible illnesses.

Toronto’s University Health Network (UHN) confirmed a patient who had recently traveled to West Africa was admitted to one of its four hospitals with a fever, but wouldn’t say which hospital or what West African country.

The person is in isolation and staff are using protective equipment until the test results are in – likely within the next 24 hours. (source)

UPDATE: The Toronto patient has tested negative for the Ebola virus, the University Health Network confirmed early Saturday.

Washington, D.C.

A patient with Ebola-like symptoms is being treated at Howard University Hospital in Washington, D.C., a hospital spokesperson confirmed late Friday morning.The patient had traveled to Nigeria recently.

That person has been admitted to the hospital in stable condition, and is being isolated and tested. The medical team is working with the CDC to determine whether the patient has Ebola. (source)

UPDATES: The D.C. Department of Health and the CDC have announced that the D.C. patient under observation for potential Ebola infection has tested negative.

The second patient thought to possibly have Ebola in the D.C. area at Shady Grove Adventist Hospital in Rockville also tested negative. It was actually not Ebola, but malaria.

Hawaii

A possible Ebola virus case has surfaced in Hawaii, where a patient is in isolation and undergoing tests, the Hawaii Health Department said.

“We are early in the investigation of a patient, very, very early, who we’re investigating that might have Ebola. It’s very possible that they do and they have Ebola. I think it’s also more likely that they have another condition that presents with similar symptoms,” said Dr. Melissa Viray, deputy state epidemiologist told KHON-TV, Honolulu. She added the public need not be concerned, reinforcing that the situation remains only a possible case of the Ebola virus. (source)

UPDATE: The Hawaii State Department of Health said Thursday it had ruled out the possibility that a patient isolated at a Honolulu hospital has the Ebola virus.

The patient, an unidentified man, was admitted to the Queen’s Medical Center on Wednesday after experiencing what hospital officials called “possible symptoms that may be consistent with Ebola.”

Early Thursday morning, the United States Centers for Disease Control & Prevention said the isolated patient was not tested for Ebola because his symptoms did not match those typically associated with the virus. The State Department of Health followed that sentiment several hours later, when it confirmed that the individual was “no longer under evaluation for possible Ebola infection.” (source)

Georgia

The Cobb County Jail is no longer accepting inmates after an inmate developed a fever. The man told jail officials that he recently traveled to Africa.

Jail officials confirm to Channel 2′s Ross Cavitt that the inmate is being tested for Ebola.

The man was arrested overnight for DUI. (source)

UPDATE: Initial test results for an inmate at the Cobb County Jail for the Ebola virus have come back negative, according to the Cobb County Sheriff’s Department.

Maryland

Shady Grove Adventist Hospital in Montgomery County, Maryland has confirmed they are treating a patient “that presented with flu-like symptoms and a travel history that matches criteria for possible Ebola.”

They claim to have implemented CDC safety measures. No confirmed diagnosis as of 4:35 PM CST 09/03/2014. (source)

UPDATE: Officials at one of the hospitals, Shady Grove Adventist Hospital in Rockville, determined late Friday that their patient had malaria, not Ebola, hospital officials said in a statement late Friday.

 

New Jersey

A United Airlines flight from Brussels was met by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention officials at Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey after a passenger on board believed to be from Liberia exhibited possible signs of Ebola.

The passenger, who was vomiting on the plane, was traveling with his daughter. Both were escorted off the plane by by CDC members in Hazmat gear.

UPDATE: Fresh reports out now state this patient does not have Ebola but an unrelated illness.

 

Delivered by The Daily Sheeple

– See more at: http://www.thedailysheeple.com/the-spread-heres-where-people-are-being-tested-for-ebola-with-results_102014#sthash.ZPWpkI0X.dpuf

Evidence from 2012 Ebola CAN be transmitted in the air

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-20341423

 

Growing concerns over ‘in the air’ transmission of Ebola

Ebola virus
The infection is thought to get into humans through close contact with bodily fluids

Canadian scientists have shown that the deadliest form of the ebola virus could be transmitted by air between species.

In experiments, they demonstrated that the virus was transmitted from pigs to monkeys without any direct contact between them.

The researchers say they believe that limited airborne transmission might be contributing to the spread of the disease in some parts of Africa.

They are concerned that pigs might be a natural host for the lethal infection.

“Start Quote

What we suspect is happening is large droplets – they can stay in the air, but not long, they don’t go far. But they can be absorbed in the airway”

Dr Gary Kobinger Public Health Agency of Canada

Ebola viruses cause fatal haemorrhagic fevers in humans and many other species of non human primates.

Details of the research were published in the journal Scientific Reports.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the infection gets into humans through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs and other bodily fluids from a number of species including chimpanzees, gorillas and forest antelope.

The fruit bat has long been considered the natural reservoir of the infection. But a growing body of experimental evidence suggests that pigs, both wild and domestic, could be a hidden source of Ebola Zaire – the most deadly form of the virus.

Now, researchers from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the country’s Public Health Agency have shown that pigs infected with this form of Ebola can pass the disease on to macaques without any direct contact between the species.

In their experiments, the pigs carrying the virus were housed in pens with the monkeys in close proximity but separated by a wire barrier. After eight days, some of the macaques were showing clinical signs typical of ebola and were euthanised.

One possibility is that the monkeys became infected by inhaling large aerosol droplets produced from the respiratory tracts of the pigs.

pigs could be a natural host
Pigs could act as a host and amplify the Ebola virus

One of the scientists involved is Dr Gary Kobinger from the National Microbiology Laboratory at the Public Health Agency of Canada. He told BBC News this was the most likely route of the infection.

“What we suspect is happening is large droplets – they can stay in the air, but not long, they don’t go far,” he explained.

“But they can be absorbed in the airway and this is how the infection starts, and this is what we think, because we saw a lot of evidence in the lungs of the non-human primates that the virus got in that way.”

The scientists say that their findings could explain why some pig farmers in the Philippines had antibodies in their system for the presence of a different version of the infection called Ebola Reston. The farmers had not been involved in slaughtering the pigs and had no known contact with contaminated tissues.

Dr Kobinger stresses that the transmission in the air is not similar to influenza or other infections. He points to the experience of most human outbreaks in Africa.

“The reality is that they are contained and they remain local, if it was really an airborne virus like influenza is it would spread all over the place, and that’s not happening.”

Hidden hostThe authors believe that more work needs to be done to clarify the role of wild and domestic pigs in spreading the virus. There have been anecdotal accounts of pigs dying at the start of human outbreaks. Dr Kobinger believes that if pigs do play a part, it could help contain the virus.

“If they do play a role in human outbreaks it would be a very easy point to intervene” he said. “It would be easier to vaccinate pigs against Ebola than humans.”

Ebola Uganda
Workers prepare to disinfect during a recent Ebola outbreak in Uganda

Other experts in the field were concerned about the idea that Ebola was susceptible to being transmitted by air even if the distance the virus could travel was limited. Dr Larry Zeitlin is the president of Mapp Biopharmaceuticals.

“It’s an impressive study that not only raises questions about the reservoir of Ebola in the wild, but more importantly elevates concerns about ebola as a public health threat,” he told BBC News. “The thought of airborne transmission is pretty frightening.”

At present, an outbreak of ebola in Uganda has killed at least two people near the capital Kampala. Last month, Uganda declared itself Ebola-free after an earlier outbreak of the disease killed at least sixteen people in the west of the country.

The Government KNEW Ebola was coming – and did nothing to prevent it

Ah HA!  The government DID see this coming.  Our government is SO concerned with internal conditions and the control of the American population that they can’t actually take the time to consider incoming problems, like too many illegal immigrants (one is too many, they are ILLEGAL!), the spread of diseases from said immigrants (children suffering from debilitating entroviruses that are now causing paralysis and even death) and the stopping of air travel in and out of Ebola-stricken countries.  Instead, it’s the damned Right Wing Nutjobs with guns, Bibles and the Constitution that irks them the most.

If a few Americans are exposed to Ebola, then – well, in the words of Rahm Emanuel:

“You never let a serious crisis go to waste. And what I mean by that it’s an opportunity to do things you think you could not do before.”

Things like, say, Martial Law?  Things like “banning guns”?  Things like “Control Americans”

Read Carefully:

http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/2014/10/02/ebola-causes-concerns-michigan/16595549/

Ebola’s U.S. arrival comes with concerns for Michigan

Michigan health care professionals are informed and ready to deal with the threat of the Ebola virus that is now on American shores. But there is no need to worry about it spreading rapidly, as it has done in some West African countries where it has killed thousands of people.

That’s the message from several health care professionals and infectious disease specialists in Michigan.

“What the public should know is that the public health system across the state has been preparing for the possibility of a person being diagnosed here for several weeks now,” said Dr. Matthew Davis, chief medical executive at the Michigan Department of Community Health.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed earlier this week that the first case of Ebola in the United States had been diagnosed, involving a person who had traveled to Dallas from West Africa. The man developed symptoms about five days after arriving in the United States and sought medical care. He was isolated and local health care officials have started identifying people who might have come into contact with him for further monitoring.

Davis said there have been numerous conversations between local, state and federal healthcare officials to ensure that health care workers know what to do if they encounter someone suspected of having the Ebola virus.

Symptoms include a fever of more than 105 degrees, severe headaches, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and bleeding.

“There also has to be a situation where a person has been in contact in the past 21 days with a person known or suspected to have Ebola,” Davis said.

The virus is spread through direct contact with the blood and body fluids of an infected person with Ebola or with objects — such as needles — that have been contaminated with the virus.

Dr. Katherine Reyes, an infectious diseases physician at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, said the United States’ health care system is better prepared to stop the spread of the virus than many other nations.

“There is a big difference between health care and infectious disease control in the United States and in parts of West Africa where Ebola is spreading,” Reyes said.

The doctors said anyone suspected of having Ebola would be isolated from other patients immediately and treated by health care workers wearing protective clothing. State and federal public health officials also would be notified.

Davis said people visiting his practice in Ann Arbor Wednesday wanted to know how real the threat of Ebola is for them and their children.

“My response is our hospitals and health systems are all alert and vigilant and prepared for the possibility of Ebola, but the risk of it spreading in the United States is very, very low,” Davis said. “I encourage families and individuals to focus more on immediate health risks here like the influenza virus which has caused hundreds of thousands of people to be sick and hospitalized each year and caused thousands of deaths. And fortunately, we have an effective vaccine for it and I encourage the public to get vaccinated.”

Detroit Metro Airport is one area where officials regularly prepare for the possibility of someone carrying an infectious disease.

The CDC operates a quarantine center in the federal inspection area at the McNamara Terminal, and the airport’s firefighters drill for such situations, according to airport spokesman Michael Conway.

He directed specific questions about the quarantine center to the CDC, where a message was left seeking comment.

Conway said the drills help maintain good relationships with area hospitals and medical professionals, and he said authorities “are vigilant and prepared to respond” if needed.

“Our firefighters are all trained paramedics with the proper training and protective equipment to assist and transport a patient to the hospital,” Conway said.

Airport officials are notified when there’s a report of a sick airline passenger, Conway said, noting that there have been no such situations today at Metro and he is unaware of any cases where a passenger was considered contagious.

The reports that a person has the Ebola virus in the United States ”certainly has gotten everybody’s attention, but the protocol for alerting the local authorities of a sick passenger on a plane has existed for years and years,” Conway said.

Detroit Metro currently has no direct flights from West Africa, although it does have flights to major international hubs that do.

And then there’s this….

Ex-CIA Officer: ‘There Are ISIS Sleeper Cells In This Country’

Thursday, 21 Aug 2014 08:23 PM
By Cathy Burke

A former CIA officer said Thursday he has no doubt Islamic State (ISIS) sleeper cells are already planted on U.S. soil.

An unnamed U.S. intelligence official told CNN there’s already an indication of ISIS sleeper cells in Europe that could target U.S. embassies and other American interests.
But former CIA officer Bob Baer told the network ISIS is already on this side of the Atlantic.

“I have been told with no uncertainty there are ISIS sleeper cells in this country,” he said.

Though CNN said two U.S. officials had refuted the claim, they’re worried ISIS militants with passports might travel to the United States to launch attacks on American soil, CNN reported.

One ISIS fighter already has hinted as much.

In several telephone conversations with a Reuters reporter over the past few months, Islamic State fighters suggest their leader, Iraqi Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, is planning something for the West – and that attacks could take place through sleeper cells in both Europe and the United States.

“The West are idiots and fools,” one fighter taunted, according to Reuters. “They think we are waiting for them to give us visas to go and attack them or that we will attack with our beards or even Islamic outfits.

“They think they can distinguish us these days – they are fools and more than that they don’t know we can play their game in intelligence. They infiltrated us with those who pretend to be Muslims and we have also penetrated them with those who look like them.”

About 100 Americans are being tracked by the FBI because of their travels to Syria, some to join ISIS, analysts say. And ISIS is actively recruiting Westerners and European Muslims who could easily enter the US.

“Clearly ISIS, if you’re interested in that ideology, that’s the most exciting thing to go and join right now,” CNN analyst Peter Bergen told CNN.

But Haras Rafiq of the Quilliam Foundation told CNN al-Baghdadi is “a narcissistic psychopath” on a barbaric mission.

“He wants to be bigger than Osama bin Laden, and one of the ways he will measure that is how effective and how big the terrorist activities he can carry out in the West are compared to what bin Laden was able to do,” he said.

Nuclear Weapon EMP Effects

A high-altitude nuclear detonation produces an immediate flux of gamma rays from the nuclear reactions within the device. These photons in turn produce high energy free electrons by Compton scattering at altitudes between (roughly) 20 and 40 km. These electrons are then trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field, giving rise to an oscillating electric current. This current is asymmetric in general and gives rise to a rapidly rising radiated electromagnetic field called an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Because the electrons are trapped essentially simultaneously, a very large electromagnetic source radiates coherently.

The pulse can easily span continent-sized areas, and this radiation can affect systems on land, sea, and air. The first recorded EMP incident accompanied a high-altitude nuclear test over the South Pacific and resulted in power system failures as far away as Hawaii. A large device detonated at 400-500 km over Kansas would affect all of CONUS. The signal from such an event extends to the visual horizon as seen from the burst point.

The EMP produced by the Compton electrons typically lasts for about 1 microsecond, and this signal is called HEMP. In addition to the prompt EMP, scattered gammas and inelastic gammas produced by weapon neutrons produce an intermediate timesignal from about 1 microsecond to 1 second. The energetic debris entering the ionosphere produces ionization and heating of the E-region. In turn, this causes the geomagnetic field to heave,producing a late-time magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) EMP generally called a heave signal.

Initially, the plasma from the weapon is slightly conducting; the geomagnetic field cannot penetrate this volume and is displaced as a result. This impulsive distortion of the geomagnetic field was observed worldwide in the case of the STARFISH test. To be sure, the size of the signal from this process is not large, but systems connected to long lines (e.g., power lines, telephone wires, and tracking wire antennas) are at risk because of the large size of the induced current. The additive effects of the MHD-EMP can cause damage to unprotected civilian and military systems that depend on or use long-line cables. Small, isolated, systems tend to be unaffected.

Military systems must survive all aspects of the EMP, from the rapid spike of the early time events to the longer duration heave signal. One of the principal problems in assuring such survival is the lack of test data from actual high-altitude nuclear explosions. Only a few such experiments were carried out before the LTBT took effect, and at that time the theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of HEMP was relatively poor. No high-altitude tests have been conducted by the United States since 1963. In addition to the more familiar high-yield tests mentioned above, three small devices were exploded in the Van Allen belts as part of Project Argus. That experiment was intended to explore the methods by which electrons were trapped and traveled along magnetic field lines.

The acid test of the response of modern military systems to EMP is their performance in simulators, particularly where a large number of components are involved. So many cables, pins, connectors, and devices are to be found in real hardware that computation of the progress of the EMP signal cannot be predicted, even conceptually, after the field enters a real system. System failures or upsets will depend upon the most intricate details of current paths and interior electrical connections, and one cannot analyze these beforehand. Threat-level field illumination from simulators combined with pulsed-current injection are used to evaluate the survivability of a real system against an HEMP threat.

The technology to build simulators with risetimes on the order of 10 ns is well known. This risetime is, however, longer than that of a real HEMP signal. Since 1986 the United States has used a new EMP standard which requires waveforms at threat levels having risetimes under a few nanoseconds. Threat-level simulators provide the best technique for establishing the hardness of systems against early-time HEMP. They are, however, limited to finite volumes (aircraft, tanks, communications nodes) and cannot encompass an extended system. For these systems current injection must be used.

HEMP can pose a serious threat to military systems when even a single high-altitude nuclear explosion occurs. In principle, even a new nuclear proliferator could execute such a strike. In practice, however, it seems unlikely that such a state would use one of its scarce warheads to inflict damage which must be considered secondary to the primary effects of blast, shock, and thermal pulse. Furthermore, a HEMP attack must use a relatively large warhead to be effective (perhaps on the order of one mega-ton), and new proliferators are unlikely to be able to construct such a device, much less make it small enough to be lofted to high altitude by a ballistic missile or space launcher. Finally, in a tactical situation such as was encountered in the Gulf War, an attack by Iraq against Coalition forces would have also been an attack by Iraq against its own communications, radar, missile, and power systems. EMP cannot be confined to only one side of the burst.

Source Region Electro-magnetic Pulse [SREMP] is produced by low-altitude nuclear bursts. An effective net vertical electron current is formed by the asymmetric deposition of electrons in the atmosphere and the ground, and the formation and decay of this current emits a pulse of electromagnetic radiation in directions perpendicular to the current. The asymmetry from a low-altitude explosion occurs because some electrons emitted downward are trapped in the upper millimeter of the Earth’s surface while others, moving upward and outward, can travel long distances in the atmosphere, producing ionization and charge separation. A weaker asymmetry can exist for higher altitude explosions due to the density gradient of the atmosphere.

Within the source region, peak electric fields greater than 10 5 V/m and peak magnetic fields greater than 4,000 A/m can exist. These are much larger than those from HEMP and pose a considerable threat to military or civilian systems in the affected region. The ground is also a conductor of electricity and provides a return path for electrons at the outer part of the deposition region toward the burst point. Positive ions, which travel shorter distances than electrons and at lower velocities, remain behind and recombine with the electrons returning through the ground. Thus, strong magnetic fields are produced in the region of ground zero. When the nuclear detonation occurs near to the ground, the SREMP target may not be located in the electromagnetic far field but may instead lie within the electro-magnetic induction region. In this regime the electric and magnetic fields of the radiation are no longer perpendicular to one another, and many of the analytic tools with which we understand EM coupling in the simple plane-wave case no longer apply. The radiated EM field falls off rapidly with increasing distance from the deposition region (near to the currents the EMP does not appear to come from a point source).

As a result, the region where the greatest damage can be produced is from about 3 to 8 km from ground zero. In this same region structures housing electrical equipment are also likely to be severely damaged by blast and shock. According to the third edition of The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, by S. Glasstone and P. Dolan, the threat to electrical and electronic systems from a surface-burst EMP may extend as far as the distance at which the peak overpressure from a 1-megaton burst is 2 pounds per square inch.

One of the unique features of SREMP is the high late-time voltage which can be produced on long lines in the first 0.1 second. This stress can produce large late-time currents on the exterior shields of systems, and shielding against the stress is very difficult. Components sensitive to magnetic fields may have to be specially hardened. SREMP effects are uniquely nuclear weapons effects.

During the Cold War, SREMP was conceived primarily as a threat to the electronic and electrical systems within hardened targets such as missile launch facilities. Clearly, SREMP effects are only important if the targeted systems are expected to survive the primary damage-causing mechanisms of blast, shock, and thermal pulse. Because SREMP is uniquely associated with nuclear strikes, technology associated with SREMP generation has no commercial applications. However, technologies associated with SREMP measurement and mitigation are commercially interesting for lightning protection and electromagnetic compatibility applications. Basic physics models of SREMP generation and coupling to generic systems, as well as numerical calculation, use unclassified and generic weapon and target parameters. However, codes and coupling models which reveal the response and vulnerability of current or future military systems are militarily critical.

Sources and Methods